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Según una investigación del Centro para el Estudio de Aprendizaje de la Universidad de Georgetown, las personas que hablan dos idiomas tienen más materia gris en los lóbulos frontal y parietal. Ambas son partes del cerebro relacionadas con las tareas de control ejecutivo, como la atención, el autocontrol y la memoria a corto plazo.

Las personas bilingües tienen ciertas ventajas en relación con los monolingües en tareas como la anticipación y el establecimiento de objetivos, elaboración de planes; la autorregulación de las tareas y la habilidad de llevarlas a cabo.

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El autor principal del estudio, Guinevere Eden, afirma que las investigaciones anteriores no dejaron claro a qué se debe esas ventajas.  Es por ello que, dentro del estudio, publicado por la revista ‘Cerebral Cortex’, su equipo decidió dar un enfoque diferente al análisis del fenómeno de bilingüismo.

“Comparamos el volumen de materia gris en adultos bilingües y monolingües”, dijo Eden.

“Pensamos que la experiencia con dos idiomas y la mayor necesidad de control cognitivo para usarlos adecuadamente darían lugar a cambios en el cerebro en personas que hablaban español e inglés en comparación con los que solo hablaban inglés. Y realmente en los bilingües encontramos más materia gris en las regiones frontal y parietal del cerebro, que están implicadas en el control ejecutivo”, explicó.

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